Unit 1 Overview: Energy and Power
Mechanisms are the basic components of most machines and consist of gears, sprockets, pulley systems, and simple machines. The effective use and understanding of mechanisms has contributed to the improvement and development of technology and society for thousands of years. The first uses of mechanisms can be seen in the development of Paleolithic tools used for hunting, gathering, and shelter construction. Today mechanisms can be found in everyday life from the basic components of a bicycle to the high-tech equipment used in the medical industry.
Engineers and scientists use mechanisms to manipulate speed, distance, force, and function to meet a wide range of design and application requirements. Engineering design applications can range from large-scale manufacturing equipment to small-scale electrical equipment found in automobiles, homes, and offices. Due to the wide range of applications involving mechanisms, it is important that designers and end users understand the characteristics, applications, and limitations of mechanisms.
In Lesson 1.1 Mechanisms, you will gain an understanding of mechanisms through the application of theory-based calculations accompanied by lab experimentation.
Unit 1 Key Terms
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Actual Mechanical Advantage
The ratio of the magnitude of the resistance and effort forces applied to a system.
A continuous band of tough flexible material used to transmit motion and power within a pulley system.
A profession for which one trains and which is undertaken as a long-term vocation.
A series of usually metal links or rings connected to or fitted into one another and used to transmit motion and power within a sprocket system.
An external force applied to an object.
The ratio of useful energy output to the total energy input, or the percentage of work input that is converted to work output.
The resistance that one surface or object encounters when moving over another.
The fixed point around which a lever rotates.
A circular toothed object used to transfer rotary motion and torque through interlocking teeth.
Ideal Mechanical Advantage
Ratio of distance traveled by the applied effort and resistance force within a system.
A gear positioned between the driver and the driven gear used to change rotational direction.
A flat surface set at an angle (or incline) with no moving parts that is able to lift objects by pushing or pulling the load.
A rigid bar used to exert a pressure or sustain a weight at one point of its length by the application of a force at a second point and turning at a third on a fulcrum.
The structure of or the relationship of the parts in a machine or in a construction or process comparable to a machine.
The turning effect of a force about a point equal to the magnitude of the force times the perpendicular distance from the point to the line of action from the force.
Distance between adjacent threads in a screw.
A type of lever that is a wheel with a groove in its rim, which is used to change the direction or multiply a force exerted by a rope or cable.
Impeding effect exerted by one material object on another.
An inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder, forming the path and pitch.
Any of various elementary mechanisms including the lever, wheel and axle, pulley, inclined plane, wedge, and screw.
A toothed wheel whose teeth engage the links of a chain.
A condition where there are no net external forces acting upon a particle or rigid body and the body remains at rest or continues at a constant velocity.
Creating, designing, and transmitting technical information so that people can understand it easily and use it safely, effectively, and efficiently.
A force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion.
A substance that tapers to a thin edge and is used for splitting, raising heavy bodies, or tightening by being driven into something.
Wheel and Axle
Two differently sized circular objects that are attached together and turn as one.